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阅读 2628 次 历史版本 0个 创建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/8 13:33:51)  最新编辑:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/8 13:33:51)
鬼脸升麻

中药名

升麻 shengma

别名

绿升麻、西升麻、空升麻、周升麻、鸡升麻、鬼脸升麻。

英文名

Cimicifugae Rhizoma。

来源

毛茛科植物大三叶升麻Cimici,uga heracLei,oliaKom.、兴安升麻Cimici uga dahurica(Turcz.) Maxim.或升麻Cimicifuga foetidaL.的根茎。(本文以升麻为准,右图亦为升麻)

植物形态

多年生草本。根茎粗壮,坚实,表面黑色,有多数内陷的圆洞状老茎残迹。茎直立,中空。下部茎生叶片三角形,2~3回3出羽状全裂;顶生小叶菱形,边缘有锯齿,侧生小叶具短柄或无柄,比顶生小叶略小。圆锥花序,花序轴和花梗密被灰色或锈色的腺毛及短毛;花两性;萼片5,倒卵状圆形,白色或绿白色,退化雄蕊位于萼片内面,宽椭圆形,顶端微凹或2浅裂,能育雄蕊多数;心皮2~5,密被灰色毛。瞢樊果长圆形,被贴伏的柔毛,基部渐狭成长2~3毫米的柄,顶端有短喙;种子3~8粒,椭圆形,全体生膜质鳞翅?;ㄆ?~9月,果期8~10月。

产地分布

生于山地林缘、林中或路旁草丛中。分布于河南、山西、湖北、陕西、宁夏、甘肃、青海、四川、云南、西藏等地。

采收加工

秋季采挖,除去泥沙,晒至须根干时,燎去或除去须根,晒干。

药材性状

不规则长形块状,多分枝,呈结节状,长10~20厘米,直径2~4厘米,表面黑褐色或棕褐色,粗糙不平,有坚硬的细须根残留,上面有数个圆形空洞状的茎基痕,洞内壁显网状沟纹;下面凹凸不平,具须根痕。体轻,质坚硬,不易折断,断面不平坦,有裂隙,纤维性,黄绿色或淡黄白色。气微,味微苦而涩。

性味归经

性微寒,味辛,微甘。归肺经、脾经、胃经、大肠经。

功效与作用

发表透疹、清热解毒、升举阳气。属解表药下属分类的辛凉解表药。

临床应用

用量3~9克,水煎服;或入丸、散。用治风热头痛、齿痛、口疮、咽喉肿痛、麻疹不透、阳毒发斑、脱肛、子宫脱垂等。

药理研究

升麻常见的有4个品种,有效成分有一定差异,临床应用大体相同,除用来发表升阳外,配葛根等对麻疹等病毒之毒血症有较好的疗效。有解热,降温,抗炎,镇痛;镇静,抗惊厥;增强免疫功能;护肝,解痉等作用。

化学成分

本品主要含升麻碱、水杨酸、树脂、咖啡酸、异阿魏酸、阿魏酸、马栗树皮素、咖啡酸、25-O-乙?;?升麻醇、升麻精、北升麻宁、类叶升麻苷A、升麻苷C、芥子酸等成分。

使用禁忌

阴虚阳浮,喘满气逆及麻疹已透者禁服。服用过量可产生头晕、震颤、四肢拘挛等证。

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